February 25, 2021
A lot has been written recently to explain and clarify the GameStop rally. The important reasons are clear: a bunch of new retail investors and young traders were welcomed on financial markets last year. Furthermore, the pandemic breeds boredom and the lockdown forced savers to stockpile money. An already famous revolt against financial elites is what followed. But more important is that these events should be seen in the context of an underlying long-term trend: the democratization of finance. As a consequence of financial innovations (since the 80s), securities have become increasingly easy to access and tradeable with (almost) zero transaction costs.
This has upsides and downsides. More inclusion, liquid stocks and a power shift away from intermediaries have some clear benefits. However, those who think the defeat and big losses of some hedge funds are a prefiguration of the New Financial World, may be in for a disappointment. In the long run, financially illiterate persons will most likely bear the most risk and collect the most losses. Furthermore, if the product is free (trading), you are the product. If there is one important lesson to be drawn from recent events, it would be that the democratization of finance should comprise more than easy access, low fees, and playful interfaces. The challenge ahead will be to create new forms of protection and regulation without being paternalistic.
- Is the GameStop Rally ultimately a consequence of animal spirits, mass hysteria, market manipulation or imperfect market structure?
- Where are we to look for protection of retail investors and regulation of democratized markets: central or decentral governance?
- At which point do the downsides of extreme liquid markets and zero commission trading (e.g. order flow, investor sentiment, speculation, etc.) outweigh the clear benefits?
- How can finance be responsibly and durably democratized?